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U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE 
HATIOKAL AGRIOULTUWL LIBMRT 



Statistical Reporting Service, U.S.D.A. Washington, D. C. 


Stocks on Farms . . . April 1 

Corn stocks on farms estimated at 1.9 billion 
bushels, were 17 percent less than April 1, 1964 
and 5 percent below average. 

Wheat stocks on farms, estimated at 264 mil- 
lion bushels, were up 72 percent from a year 
earlier and 15 percent above average. 

Oat stocks on farms are estimated at 403 
million bushels, down 10 percent from last year 
and 14 percent below average. 

Barley farm stocks totaled 107 million bushels, 
19 percent below last year and 15 percent below 
average. 

Rye stocks on farms, at 9.4 million bushels, 
were nearly three times the low 1964 stocks and 
more than one -third above average. 

Flaxseed stocks on farms are 6.5 million 
bushels, 15 percent below last year and 7 percent 
below average. 

Soybean farm stocks, estimated at 98 million 
bushels, were down 49 percent from a year earlier 
and 24 percent below average. 

Sorghum stocks totaled 99 million bushels, 
down 11 percent from April 1, 1964 and 1 percent 
below average. 

Milk production: About 11 billion pounds were 
produced in March, slightly more than March 
1964 and 3 percent above average for the month. 

Egg production : Nearly 5.7 billion eggs were 
produced in March, 1 percent less than March 
1964 and average. 


Winter Wheat Prospects Up, 

Other Grains Favorable 

According to the Crop Reporting Board, 1965 
winter wheat production was expected to total 
1,037 million bushels as of April 1--1 percent 
more than last year and 7 percent above average. 
The estimated yield per seeded acre of 23.0 
bushels compares with 23.7 last year and the 
1959-63 average of 22.9 bushels. 

Winter grains were either snow covered or 
dormant in the Northern Plains areas during 
March. The condition of the crop is questionable 
until spring growth starts because the crop en- 
tered the winter with limited fall growth. Fall 


SS-269 April 27, 1965 

seeded grains had an average winter in Kansas; 
central and eastern areas have had adequate 
moisture, but dry counties near Colorado need 
rain. Eastern Colorado and the Panhandles of 
Oklahoma and Texas received only limited mois- 
ture in March. Wheat has been able to hang on. 
Winds were generally lighter than usual and the 
dry soils blew less than anticipated. Outside of 
the dry Western areas, Oklahoma and Texas 
wheat prospects are promising. Winter barley 
and oats suffered more losses than wheat and 
sizeable acreage losses are expected. 

In the Corn Belt, wheat had not started to grow 
by April 1 except in southern areas. Improved 
moisture conditions offer good prospects with 
the coming of warm weather. Small grains came 
through in good shape in the South Central and 
South Atlantic areas. Growth has been about 
normal but wet soils have hampered topdressing. 
Grain crops are in need of moisture in the Pacific 
Northwest to improve stooling and strengthen the 
stands. An exceptionally large acreage has been 
reworked and reseeded in areas eroded by winter 
floods. 


Prices of Farm Products 


Commodity 

Average Farm 

Gate Prices 

Effective 

Parity 

Prices 

For 

March 1965 

February 

1965 

March 

1965 

Basic commodities: 





Cotton, Amer. upland (lb.)..... 


27.62 

28.65 

41.40 

Wheat (bu.)..... 

dol. 

1.37 

1.36 

2.53 

Rice (100 lb.) 

dol. 

5.11 

5.23 

6.52 

Corn (bu.) 

doL 

1.17 

1.18 

1.55 

Peanuts (lb.) 


12.0 

11.6 

14.3 

Designated nonbasic commodities: 




Milkfat in cream (lb.) 


58.7 

,58.6 

79.2 

Milk, wholesale (100 lb.) 

doL 

4.29 

4.15 

5.53 

Wool (lb.) 


2 47.8 

2 47.7 

82.0 

Other nonbasic commodities: 





Barley (bu.) 

dol. 

.980 

.968 

1.23 

Cottonseed (ton) 

dol. 

48.20 

47.70 

62.30 

Flaxseed (bu.) 

dol. 

2.92 

2.89 

3.82 

Hay, baled (ton) 

dol. 

25.70 

25.70 

— 

Oats (bu.) 

dol. 

.659 

.660 

.843 

Potatoes (cwt.) 

dol. 

4.11 

4.19 

2.56 

Rye (bu.). 

dol. 

.961 

.955 

1.38 

Sorghum, grain (100 lb.) 

dol. 

1.95 

1.93 

2.44 

Soybeans (bu.). 

dol. 

2.81 

2.85 

3.01 

Sweetpotatoes (cwt.) 

dol. 

6.25 

6.63 

5.98 

Oranges, on tree (box) 

dol. 

2.77 

2.35 

3.50 

Apples, for fresh use (bu.)... 

dol. 

2.54 

2.71 

3.17 

Beef cattle (100 lb.) 

dol. 

18.20 

18.60 

25.40 

Calves (100 lb.) 

dol. 

20.60 

20.50 

29.20 

Hogs (100 lb.) 

dol. 

16.40 

16.30 

21.20 

Lambs (100 lb.)._ 

dol. 

21.60 

22.30 

25.20 

Chickens, all (lb.) 


14.3 

15.0 

22.0 

Eggs (dozen) 


30.6 

30.7 

47.4 


2 

Preliminary Does not include incentive payment 


2 


Farm Stocks: Food Grains Up, 

Feed and Oilseeds Down 

Total tonnage of the four feed grains stored on 
farms April 1 was 16 percent less than a year 
earlier and 7 percent below average. Corn de- 
clined 17 percent and sorghum 11 percent from 
the record high farm holdings of a year earlier. 


Farm stocks of food grains were 74 percent 
more than last year and 1 5 percent above average. 
Stocks of all wheat on farms were 72 percent 
larger because of increases in both durum and 
other wheat. Rye stocks were nearly three times 
last year's low level. Oilseed stocks on farms 
were down sharply mostly because of a 49 per- 
cent drop in soybeans and 15 percent in flaxseed. 


Statistical Series of Interest to Agriculture 


Item 

1964 

1965 







Mil. 

Mil. 

Mil. 

Mil. 

Mil. 

Nonfarm employment, (civilian)^. 

64.5 

65.6 

65.3 

65.7 

66.2 

Farm employment 

5.3 

6.1 

4.0 

4.3 

4.7 

Family 

4.2 

4.5 

3.3 

3.5 

3.7 

Hired 

1.1 

1.6 

.7 

.8 

1.0 


Index number (1957-59 = 100) 

Industrial production ^ 

129 

132 

138 

139 

140 

Total personal income payments^ 

132 

135 

140 

140 

141 

Weekly factory earnings'^ 

120 

125 

129 

130 

132 

Average earnings of factory 






workers, per worker^ 

120 

122 

126 

126 

128 

Wholesale prices, all commodi- 






ties^ 

100 

100 

101 

101 

101 

Farm commodities 

95 

94 

93 

94 

96 

Food, processed 

100 

101 

102 

102 

102 

Consumer price index ^ 

108 

108 

109 

109 

- 

Food 

106 

106 

107 

107 



Index numbers (1910-14= 100) 

Prices received by farmers 

239 

236 

236 

238 

239 

Crops 

241 

237 

233 

235 

237 

Food grains 

215 

190 

168 

167 

166 

Feed grains and hay 

166 

166 

174 

176 

177 

Cotton 

259 

260 

233 

233 

242 

Tobacco 

490 

490 

485 

495 

495 

Oil bearing crops 

260 

256 

275 

281 

282 

Fruit 

293 

295 

271 

260 

245 

Commercial vegetables 

275 

245 

226 

239 

267 

Livestock and products 

237 

235 

238 

240 

241 

Meat animals 

273 

269 

272 

280 

283 

Dairy products 

253 

256 

269 

262 

255 

Poultry and eggs 

144 

142 

136 

137 

139 

Prices paid by farmers 






All commodities 

283 

282 

285 

286 

286 

Used in living 

299 

300 

303 

304 

303 

Used in production 

272 

270 

272 

273 

273 

Commodities, interest, taxes, 






and wage rates (parity index) 

313 

313 

317 

318 

318 

Farm wage rates, seasonally 






adjusted 

673 

693 

708 

708 

708 

Parity ratio (prices received to 






parity index) 

76 

75 

74 

75 

75 


^ Bureau of the Census, 2 Federal Reserve Board. 3 Department of 
Commerce. Bureau of Labor Statistics - any figures not available at 
press time omitted. 


Fruit Prospects Good 

Prospects for the southern peach crop are up 
sharply from last year's freeze-damaged crop. 
Cold weather during March delayed blooming and 
minimized losses. Except for the Pacific North- 
west, other fruit areas have gone through the 
winter without serious losses, although in the 
midwe stern States a late March freeze caused 
some damage to early fruit buds. In the Pacific 
Northwest warm temperatures early in March 
caused early bud development. As a result, 
fruit was heavily damaged by subfreezing tem- 
peratures on March 17th and 25th. Heaviest 
losses occurred in cherries, peaches, and apri- 
cots. Bartlett pears in the Yakima Valley also 
were damaged. Washington apricots, cherries, 
and peaches had already been seriously damaged 
by a December cold spell. California's almonds, 
avocados, apricots, peaches, nectarines, pears, 
and plums bloomed during March. Almond trees 
were past full bloom, and cherries in or past full 
bloom, by April 1. 


Citrus Up 21 Percent From Last Year 

Total production of citrus for 1964-65 is 
expected to be 21 percent greater than last year. 
The indicated orange crop is 28 percent and the 
grapefruit crop 17 percent larger, but production 
of lemons is down 22 percent. By April 1 growers 
had picked 59 percent of the oranges and 77 
percent of the grapefruit, leaving about 48 million 
boxes of oranges and over 9 million boxes of 
grapefruit to be harvested. A year ago 42 million 
boxes of oranges and over 7 million boxes of 
grapefruit were harvested after April 1. 


Livestock and Livestock Products 


Item 

Unit 

Jan.-Feb. 

1964 

Jan.-Feb. 

1965 

Dairy Production 




Milk 

BU. lb. 

^ 31.2 

^ 31.3 

Evaporated whole milk 

Mil. lb. 

281.8 

241.5 

Dry Nonfat milk solids (for human 




food) 

MU. lb. 

357.9 

368.2 

Butter, creamery 

Mil. lb. 

252.3 

253.2 

Cheese, American 

Mil. lb. 

163.9 

169.6 

Ice Cream 

MU. gal. 

99.0 

99.4 

Poultry Production 




Eggs 

BiUions 

1 16.3 

1 16.3 

Federally inspected slaughter ^ 




Chickens....... 

Mil. lb. 

803.3 

824.1 

Turkeys 

MU. lb. 

44.7 

44.9 

Poultry used for further 




processing 

MU. lb. 

99.7 

109.6 

Liquid egg 

Mil. lb. 

73.5 

97.9 

Dried egg (egg solids) 

Mil. lb. 

4.8 

7.4 

Frozen egg 

MU. lb. 

46.1 

54.5 

Meat Production 




(dressed weight)^ 




Beef 

Mil. lb. 

2,810 

2,901 

Veal 

MU. lb. 

139 

148 

Pork 

Mil. lb. 

2,133 

1,887 

Lamb and mutton 

IvUl. lb. 

126 

106 

Total red meat 

Mil. lb. 

5,208 

5,042 


^ January-March. ^ Ready-to-cook. ^ Commercial; excludes 
farm slaughter. 


3 


More Potatoes - Less -Vegetable Production 

Spring potato production is expected to be 
larger than last year with sharp acreage in- 
creases-- 14 percent above last year to 4,782,000 
hundredweight- -more than offsetting lower yield 
prospects for the early spring crop. Late spring 
acreage is expected to be one-fourth larger than 
in 1964. 

Indicated production of early spring vegetables 
is 7 percent less than both last year and average. 
Declines are indicated for most spring vegetables 
except sweet corn. 

Crop Progress Behind Schedule 

Winter hung on across the northern half of the 
Nation during March. Snow cover in the North 
Central Region extended as far south as mid- 
Iowa at the end of the month. Seed bed prepara- 
tions got off to a good start last fall, but the usual 
spring operations are behind schedule. Seeding 
of oats was just getting under way in southern 
Illinois and Indiana. In Kansas only 15 percent 
of the intended acreage of spring oats was seeded 
compared to the usual 60 percent, causing some 
concern. However, with modern equipment farm- 
ers can catch up rapidly whenthe weather breaks. 

Crop work is about at a normal pace in Texas, 
but wet soils from eastern Texas to the Atlantic 
have hampered field work. Gulf Coastal areas 
dried out late in the month and farmers were 
able to start spring planting. Tobacco beds have 
made good growth but transplanting has lagged. 
In the Pacific Northwest, the first half of March 
was sunny and farmers made good progress until 
interrupted by cold and snow in late March. 
Cool weather delayed farming operations in the 
Southwest but March rains improved the outlook 
for the season. Irrigation water supplies are 
good in central and northern Mountain areas, but 
additional moisture from spring and summer 
rains will be needed in the Southwestern areas. 


Pastures Develop Slowly 

Reported pasture condition for the Nation on 
April 1 was 76 percent of normal. This was 1 
point below last year and 6 points less than 


Farm-Retail Price Spreads 

Farm-Retail Spread and Farmer's Share of the Consumer's 
Dollar for Market Basket of Farm-Food Products 


Year and Month 

Retail 
Cost 1 

Farm 
Value 2 

Farm- Retail 
Spread 

Farmer's 

Share 

1964 average 

$1,015 

$373 

$642 

3Vo 

1964 December 

1,019 

375 

644 

37^0 

1965 January..^ 

1,015 

378 

637 

31% 

1965 February 

1,013 

381 

632 

387o 


^ Retail cost of average quantities purchased per household In 1960-61 
by urban wage-earner and clerical-worker families and single workers 
living alone, calculated from retail prices collected by the Bur. Labor 
Statistics. ^ Payment to farmers for equivalent quantities of farm pro- 
duce minus imputed value of byproducts obtained in processing. 


average. The open fall in 1964 permitted live- 
stock to graze pasture crops closely. Cold weather 
in March and limited moisture in some areas 
held back the early spring recover. Wheat pas- 
tures furnished some forage in March, but sup- 
plemental feeding has continued in most areas. 
Warmer weather improved range prospects in 
Northern Plains and Mountain areas, but Southern 
areas are dependent on spring rains. 

Livestock are in generally good condition in 
all areas of the Nation. Hay and roughage short- 


Cash Receipts from Farm Marketings, 
by States, February 1965^ 


State 

Livestock 
and Products 

Crops 

Total 

NORTH ATLANTIC REGION 

1 ,000 dol. 

:,ooo dol. 

1 ,000 dot. 

Maine :... 

10,019 

19,954 

29,973 

New Hampshire 

3,282 

891 

4,173 

Vermont 

9,214 

1,087 

10,301 

Massachusetts 

7,831 

4,611 

12,442 

Rhode Island 

944 

445 

1,389 

Connecticut 

7,352 

4,766 

12,118 

New York 

51,833 

20,665 

72,498 

New Jersey 

9,797 

3,684 

13,481 

Pennsylvania 

46,177 

14,928 

61,105 

NORTH CENTRAL REGION 
Ohio 

50,667 

26,159 

76,826 

Indiana 

56,562 

36,538 

93,100 

Illinois 

84,978 

94,038 

179,016 

Michigan 

32,061 

21,030 

53,091 

Wisconsin 

89,148 

11,022 

100,170 

Minnesota 

90,068 

32,221 

122,289 

Iowa 

160,363 

68,268 

228,631 

Missouri 

48,045 

12,392 

60,437 

North Dakota 

11,186 

24,601 

35,787 

South Dakota 

35,596 

8,148 

43,744 

Nebraska 

61,571 

38,792 

100,363 

Kansas 

58,833 

10,716 

69,549 

SOUTHERN REGION 

Delaware 

5,798 

1,297 

7,095 

Maryland 

15,173 

3,650 

18,823 

Virginia 

16,827 

6,773 

23,600 

West Virginia 

4,416 

1,589 

6,005 

North Carolina 

25,922 

8,660 

34,582 

South Carolina 

8,114 

8,695 

16,809 

Georgia 

35,566 

9,926 

45,492 

Florida 

17,862 

98,785 

116,647 

Kentucky 

19,101 

7,777 

26,878 

Tennessee 

18,286 

11,990 

30,276 

Alabama 

26,512 

5,755 

32,267 

Mississippi 

21,959 

23,659 

45,618 

Arkansas 

22,381 

20,757 

43,138 

Louisiana 

12,508 

6,241 

18,749 

Oklahoma 

23,557 

5,927 

29,484 

Texas.... 

75,770 

23,808 

99,578 

WESTERN REGION 

Montana 

7,792 

9,681 

17,473 

Idaho 

15,312 

18,589 

33,901 

Wyoming 

3,956 

1,630 

5,586 

Colorado 

37,012 

11,708 

48,720 

New Mexico 

5,167 

3,126 

8,293 

Arizona 

12,949 

10,930 

23,879 

Utah 

7,669 

2,278 

9,947 

Nevada 

2,144 

664 

2,808 

Washington 

16,706 

16,894 

33,600 

Oregon 

12,143 

10,901 

23,044 

California 

98,988 

77,633 

176,621 

UNITED STATES 

United States, Jan.-Dee 

1,495,117 

864,279 

2,359,396 

Same Period, year ago 

1,483,923 

870,530 

2,354,453 


^ All figures represent sales of farm products, plus Commodity Credit 
loans reported during the month minus Commodity Credit loans repaid 
during the month. For comparisons of cash receipts with earlier months 
and years, see issues of the Farm Income Situation. 


4 


Cash Receipts From Farming and Index of 
Volume of Farm Marketings, United States^ 


Item 

February 

1965 

March 

1965 

CASH RECEIPTS 

Mil, dol. 

Mil. dol. 

Total marketings and CCC loans ^ 

2,359 

2,500 

Livestock and products 

1,495 

1,700 

Meat animals 

826 


Dairy products 

408 


Poultry and eggs 

226 


Other. 

35 


Crops 

864 

800 

Food grains 

65 


Feed crops 

278 


Cotton (lint and seed). 

51 


Oil-bearing crops 

108 


Tobacco 

16 


Vegetables 

153 


Fruits and tree nuts 

104 


Other 

89 


Government payments 

137 


Grand total 

2,496 


VOLUME OF FARM MARKETINGS: 

1957-59 

100 

All commodities 

87 

90 

Livestock and products 

102 

120 

Crops 

66 

49 


^ For comparison with earlier months andyears.seeissues of the Farm 
Income Situation. 

^ Receipts from loans represent value of loans minus value of redemp- 
tions during the month. Details may not add to totals because of rounding. 

ages are reported locally but are not widespread 
despite extended supplemental feeding. Cold and 
wet weather has required more care of young 
animals to prevent heavy losses. Mud and cold, 
stormy weather lowered March gains infeedlots. 

March Milk Production Estimate 
3 Percent Above Average 

Milk production in the United States during 
March, estimated at 11,155 million pounds, is 
one- half percent above a year earlier and 3 
percent more than the 1959-63 average for the 
month. On a daily average basis, production 


increased 3 percent from February to March 
this year compared with a seasonal increase of 
4 percent a year earlier . Milk production amounted 
to 1.85 pounds per person daily compared with 
1.87 pounds in March 1964. Output per cow 
averaged 706 pounds in March, 3 percent above 
a year earlier and 14 percent more than the 
1959-63 average for the month. 

On April 1 the reported rate of grain and 
concentrates fed per milk cow averaged 9.9 
pounds, 5 percent more than a year earlier. 

Fewer Hired Farm Workers in March than 1964 

The number of hired workers in the March sur- 
vey week totaled 971,000 or 1 0 percent less than in 
March 1964. With the prevailing seasonal field 
conditions, labor shortages were minimized even 
for specialty crops. In California, some rainy 
and cool weather in the principal asparagus area 
slowed growth and aided in the orderly harvest of 
fresh asparagus by a force of domestic farm 
workers considerably less numerous than re- 
quired during the comparable period last year. 
Citrus harvest made good progress in California 
and Florida, and harvest of Florida sugarcane 
was completed. 

More Pullets Placed for Broiler Hatcheries 

Domestic placements of pullet chicks for broiler 
hatchery supply flocks by leading primary 
breeders totaled 3,413,000 during March 1965. 
This was 1 percent more than domestic place- 
ments of 3,381,000 in March 1964. Total place- 
ments (domestic plus export) were reported at 
3,933,000 compared to 3,742,000 a year earlier. 
Domestic placements of pullet chicks by leading 
primary breeders for January through March 
1965 totaled 8,241,000, 5 percent more than during 
the same period of 1964. 


William T. Schanger, Editor 


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